SD Association

 

 

Glossary

AAC
AAC stands for Advanced Audio Coding, which is the high-quality digital audio compression technology used in SD-Audio and satellite-based digital broadcasting in Japan. It compresses data to about one-tenth of its original size while maintaining CD-like sound quality when recording in the highest-quality mode (128kbps). The sound quality is better than an MP3 player.

Return to Terms
CD Ripping
This refers to the copying of audio data from a music CD to a PC or a memory card.

Return to Terms
Check-in, Check-out
These are the terms used in SDMI copyright protection system. Checking-out means writing data from the PC to an SD memory card with a "key". Checking-in means returning the music data and the "key" from the SD memory card to the PC. This system prevents data from being duplicated on a different PC other than the one from which it was checked out.

Return to Terms
CPRM
Content Protection for Recordable Media. This is a technology that supports the security system of the SD memory card. This is a content protection and certification/authentication standard jointly developed by 4C Entity LLC.

Return to Terms
De facto Standard
A de facto standard is a general standard resulting from mass market adoption. A good example of a de facto standard is DVD for home video. The SD memory card is the de facto standard among flash memory cards.

Return to Terms
EMD
EMD stands for Electronic Media Distribution, and it refers to the service of distributing digital contents through a communication network such as Internet or a mobile phone system.

Return to Terms
Encoder
An encoder is a device, circuit or software routine that compresses digital audio, video or other data to reduce volume, and sometimes encodes that data to prevent illegal duplication and use. Basically, an encoder only compresses and encodes data. A decoder is a device that decodes encoded data.

Return to Terms
Flash Memory
A memory technology that allows data to be written and rewritten and is not erased when the power is shut off. Since flash memory does not need battery backup, it is used in a wide variety of consumer electronics.

Return to Terms
GPS
GPS, which stands for Global Positioning System, is a whole-earth navigation system consisting of 24 GPS satellites that are in orbit 11,000 nautical miles around the earth. The satellites transmit signals that can be detected with a GPS receiver, and then uses the signals to determine your exact location on earth with great accuracy.

Return to Terms
HALA
HALA, which stands for Host/Ancillary License Agreement, is required by companies planning to have made, design, use, offer for sale, import or export SD host products or SD ancillary products. 

Return to Terms
ISO 9293
This is a logical format standardized by the International Standards Organization (ISO). The SD memory card complies IS0 9293 in its file system for storing data. By using an IS0 format, compatibility between different kinds of devices and operating systems is realized.

Return to Terms
JPEG
JPEG stands for Joint Photographic Experts Group. This is a format standardized by ISO and ITU-TS (a branch of ITU), which is used in compressing still image data. JPEG, with its 16.7 million colors, is well suited to compressing photographic images and widely used in Web documents.

Return to Terms
LAMS
LAMS stands for License Agreement for SD Association Memory Card Specification. This is required by companies for the manufacture of SD memory cards and flash SDIO cards.

Return to Terms
MIDI
MIDI is an acronym that stands for Musical Instrument Digital Interface. MIDI files are music files that contain no audio information. Rather, they contain only the artist's musical keyboard keystroke information (note, velocity. duration, etc.) captured at the time the music was composed. A device that supports MIDI playback, such as PC with a MIDI capable sound card, can then be used to synthesize (recreate) that same music.

Return to Terms
MPEG
MPEG stands for Moving Picture Experts Group and is the name of family of standards used for coding audio-visual information (e.g.. movies, video, music) in a digital compressed format. MPEG-1 is applied to Video CDs. MPEG-2 to DVD and MPEG 4 targets telecommunications, such as mobile phones and the Internet. MPEG is capable of transferring video images at high speed and with a lower volume of data.

Return to Terms
MP3
MP3 stands for MPEG-1 Audio Layer 3, the international standard for compression of audio data established for the MPEG-1 motion picture compression standard. Compression rates of 1/10 to 1/12 can be obtained with without significantly degrading the original sound quality. MP3 is a widely used compression technology for distributing music over the Internet.

Return to Terms
RIAA
Recording Industry Association of America (RIAA) conducts activities related to the music industry, such as discussion on copyright protection. The RIAA played a central role in establishing SDMI.

Return to Terms
SD Association
The SD Association is a global ecosystem of technology companies setting industry-leading memory card storage standards that simplify the use of consumer electronics and wireless communication products for millions of people everyday. SD Association was formed in January 2000 by Panasonic Corporation, SanDisk Corporation and Toshiba Corporation. Today, the Association is made up of more than 1,100 member companies involved in the design, development, manufacture or sale of products or services using SD technology. The small, postage stamp-sized removable memory cards are used by some 400 global brands across dozens of product categories and found in more than 7,000 models.

Return to Terms
SDIO card
SDIO is an SD-size card with extended input/output functions. IO stands for input and output. SDIO allows manufacturers to create hardware extension devices which can be added to products via the SDIO compatible slot. Many SDIO based add-on products include wireless LAN and communications adapters, digital TV Tuners, and GPS attachments among others. SDIO compatible slots are available on many PDAs, mobile phones and numerous other products.

Return to Terms
SDMI
SDMI stands for Secure Digital Music Initiative. The SDMI conference was established by music device manufacturers, five major music companies (UMG, BMG, EMI, WMG, SME) and the RIAA for protecting music copyrights. SDMI creates a framework for preventing the illegal use of music data and promotes services that provide online music legally.

Return to Terms
USB
Universal Serial Bus (USB) is a standard for low to middle speed serial interfaces and supports a wide variety of products such as printers, modems, digital cameras and MP3 music players. Unlike previous serial connections, USB uses a convenient "hot-swapping" system that allows you disconnect and connect the cable while the unit's power is on.

Return to Terms
USB Reader/Writer
This is a device that reads, writes and changes data on a memory card. For example, it is used to save digital data, such as music, onto a memory card from a PC.

Return to Terms
WMA
Microsoft introduced its Windows Media Audio (WMA) file format in the summer of 1999. WMA offers improved sound quality over MP3 files encoded at the same bit rate. In addition to superior compression, WMA includes the ability for copyright protection in the WMA codec through the use of digital certificates.

Return to Terms
3C (SD-3C, LLC)
3C stands for the three companies - Panasonic Corporation, Sandisk, and Toshiba - which formed a strategic alliance on August 25, 1999 to develop next generation semiconductor memory cards. The companies developed the SD memory card and introduced it onto the marketing in June 2000.

Return to Terms
4C Entity, LLC
The 4C Entity, LLC is organized for the purpose of licensing the copy protection technologies such as Content Protection for Recordable Media and Pre-Recorded Media (CPRM/CPPM) specifications. These technologies are jointly developed by IBM, Intel, Panasonic Corporation and Toshiba.

Return to Terms